In sociology, the term social phenomena refers to the individual, external influences that shape our evolving behaviors and opinions, Foundational knowledge of the key theories is vital for understanding and analysing sociological concepts - that is, for being able to take what is known as the sociological approach. Let's take a brief look at the main sociological theories and the various ways in which they can be categorised.
2) What branches of sociology result from such a categorisation basis? (07 categories below):
- Structural sociology: This branch of sociology studies the social structures and institutions that shape and organize society. It includes the study of organizations, social hierarchies, and social networks.
ü structural functionalism, in sociology and other social sciences, a school of thought according to which each of the institutions, relationships, roles, and norms that together constitute a society serves a purpose, and each is indispensable for the continued existence of the others and of society as a whole
- Cultural sociology: This branch of sociology studies the cultural aspects of society, including the values, beliefs, norms, and symbols that shape people's behavior and identity.
ü The sociology of culture, and the related cultural sociology, concerns the systematic analysis of culture, usually understood as the ensemble of symbolic codes used by a member of a society, as it is manifested in the society.
- Economic sociology: This branch of sociology studies the economic systems and structures that shape society, including the distribution of wealth and resources, the role of markets and firms, and the impact of globalization.
ü Economic sociology is the study of how the material conditions of life are produced and reproduced through social processes. The field of economic sociology can be separated into the sociology of markets and the sociology of consumption.
- Political sociology: This branch of sociology studies the political systems and processes that shape society, including the distribution of power and authority, the role of political institutions, and the impact of social movements.
ü Political sociology is the study of power and the relationship between societies, states, and political conflict. It is a broad subfield that straddles political science and sociology, with “macro” and “micro” components. The macrofocus has centered on questions about nation-states, political institutions and their development, and the sources of social and political change (especially those involving large-scale social movements and other forms of collective action).
- Environmental sociology: This branch of sociology studies the relationship between society and the natural environment, including the impact of human activities on the environment and the social and cultural factors that shape people's attitudes and behaviors towards the environment.
ü environmental sociology is the study of the relationship between societies and their natural environment. Studying these interactions is important to determine environmental problems and find appropriate solutions. The scope of this work is really wide
- Demography: This branch of sociology studies the population characteristics of society, including trends in birth, death, migration, and aging.
- Historical sociology: This branch of sociology studies the historical processes that have shaped society, including the evolution of social structures, institutions, and cultural practices over time.