PHRASE - A phrase is a group of related words. It does not contain a subject and a verb. There are different types of phrases.
Examples: 1. from the stairs
- to run
- playing the piano
CLAUSE - A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses.
Examples: 1. The play was funny.
2. Since the play was funny.
- Read and complete all exercises in this packet.
- Take test for Packet 4.
PHRASES - a phrase is a group of related words. It does not contain a subject and a verb. There are different types of phrases.
- Prepositional Phrase - (prep + noun/pron)
Examples: 1. Most Australians live in large cities.
- Many cities with large factories have a smog problem.
- The great dividing range extends across the east side.
- Mr. Jones presented the award to me.
- Alice sat near her.
- Infinitive Phrase - ( to + verb)
Examples: 1. To run daily is healthy.
- They pretend to speak Latin.
- Her idea to deliver the package was approved by her mother.
- Other Phrases - (beginning with an ing, ed, or en word.)
Although these words are formed from verbs, they are not verbs when used without helping words.
Examples 1. Hating homework, Bob put off doing it until late at night.
- The girl running quickly tripped and fell.
- Dusting the furniture and washing the floors are tiresome chores.
- Destroyed by fire, the church was never rebuilt.
- Eaten quickly, the candies were gone before I arrived.
Packet 4.doc 4/09; Disk YY (51); g:ASC Eng Read
CLAUSES - a clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses:
- Independent Clause - expresses a complete thought and has a subject and verb. It is the main thought of a sentence and can be used alone as a simple sentence.
Examples: 1. Mrs. Smith bakes wonderful pies.
- During the rainstorm, the children were frightened by the thunder.
- She enjoys playing the piano.
2. Dependent Clause – has a subject and verb but cannot be used as a simple sentence. A dependent clause is introduced by a dependent word (subordinating conjunction). See the following list.
in order that
Whenever a clause begins with one of the above dependent words (unless it is a question, which would never give you any trouble), it is dependent. If we take an independent clause such as:
We finished the game.
and put one of the dependent words in front of it, it becomes dependent:
After we finished the game
Although we finished the game
As we finished the game
Before we finished the game
If we finished the game
Since we finished the game
That we finished the game
When we finished the game
While we finished the game
The clause can no longer stand alone. As you read it, you can hear that it doesn’t make a complete statement. It leaves the reader expecting something more. It is an incomplete thought or fragment and must not be punctuated as a sentence.
To correct such an incomplete thought or fragment, simply add an independent clause:
After we finished the game, we went to the clubhouse.
While we finished the game, the others waited.
We gave up the court when we had finished the game. We were happy that we had finished the game.
In other words, every sentence must have at least one independent clause.
Note in the example above that when a dependent clause comes at the beginning of a sentence, it is followed by a comma. Often the comma prevents misreading, as in the following:
When he entered, the room became quiet.
Note that sometimes the dependent word is the subject of the dependent clause:
Examples: 1. I took the highway that was finished just last month.
2. The girl who was standing by the window is gone.
Sometimes the dependent clause is in the middle of the independent clause:
Examples: 1. The highway that was finished last month goes to Indianapolis.
2. The book which is on the shelf is excellent.
Note: the word that does not always introduce a dependent clause; it may be a pronoun (That is my book) or a describing word (I like that book).
Phrases and Clauses
A. In the spaces to the left of each number write P for phrase, IC for independent clause, and DC for dependent clause.
Examples: P With their friends
IC It is the only solution
DC Unless they could borrow the car
______ 1. Throwing papers along the streets
______ 2. While debris covered the park
______ 3. With broken glass in the alley
______ 4. Beside old trucks and cars
______ 5. No one lives there
______ 6. For lights on every corner
______ 7. If the expense is too great
______ 8. As he walked home
______ 9. Dragged up the subway steps ______18. No one cared about the party
______19. After the storm ended
______ 20. After the storm on Friday
______ 21. While baking the bread
______ 22. Leaving me behind
______ 23. Which was stolen
______ 24. A few were left
______ 25. Given a new lease on life
______ 26. As a loving gesture
______10. Thousands of people walk every day ______ 27. That she was going
______11. Racing against the traffic signal ______ 28. Since finding her keys and book
______12. Unless it rains ______ 29. Scolded by his mother
______13. When a helicopter hovers overhead ______ 30. Raise the flag
______14. Who play basketball in the empty lot ______ 31. Giving him a lift
______15. That lives in town ______ 32. If they can
______16. To think intelligently ______ 33. Run
______17. Except Mary and Tom ______ 34. Which sank
______ 35. Forgetting to do his assignment ______ 38. Please leave now
______ 36. Without a doubt ______ 39. Driven to drink
______ 37. Even though it seems unlikely ______ 40. Which was the wrong answer
______ 1. Driving can be fun
______ 2. Drive slowly
______ 3. I suppose
______ 4. To run quickly
______ 5. Traveling at a fast pace
______ 6. Which sank
______ 7. Until tomorrow morning
______ 8. While it poured
______ 9. Buy bread at the store
______ 10. Living by herself
______ 11. Fifteen went home
______ 12. That we bought
______ 13. To act responsibly
______ 14. Who decided to leave
______ 15. While talking on the phone
______ 16. While we talked
______ 17. Aside from that
______ 18. I say
______ 19. Though the motor was running
______ 20. Since Monday Mary has disappeared
______ 21. Unless she knew the truth
______ 22. To be the last-place team in the league
______ 23. When on time
______ 24. If you like
______ 25. By popular consent
______ 26. Many were walking
______ 27. Unless we meet at once
______ 28. Because of your interest
______ 29. As I should have guessed
______ 30. Racing to the sea last evening
______ 31. Race to the sea
______ 32. Several were wrong
______ 33. Until the matter is settled
______ 34. Dealt a losing hand
______ 35. Do your work quickly
______ 36. If problems arise
______ 37. That may win
______ 38. Since few can go
______ 39. Getting all the answers correct
______ 40. Although the time has come
______ 1. Under extreme pressure
______ 2. To turn to the right
______ 3. Knitting is difficult
______ 4. Who the best candidate will be
______ 5. In time of extreme danger
______ 6 Listen
______ 7. When I heard
______ 8. Until you told me
______ 9. I was chosen
______ 10. Whom he addressed
______ 11. Seen in the park
______ 12. Walk carefully
______ 13. Angered by that remark
______ 14. Before the exam
______ 15. Before he left
______ 16. On the floor were my books
______ 17. Jump
______ 18. Since swimming in the lake
______ 19. Riding home in the car
______ 20. Besides jogging
______ 21. After the dinner party
______ 22. Each answered
______ 23. Driving home
______ 24. Reading helps
______ 25. Giving him a lift
______ 26. Speak clearly
______ 27. Since few arrived
______ 28. No one saw
______ 29. Jumping is exhausting.
______ 30. Besides doing your work
______ 31. Until we leave
______ 32. That fell
______ 33. Where it fell
______ 34. Before crossing the street
______ 35. While we waited
______ 36. Have a great time
______ 37. Which is yours
______ 38. No one cared
______ 39. Left for dead
______ 40. Because they went
4/09; Disk YY (51); g:ASC Eng Read
B. Underline the dependent clauses and circle the subordinating conjunctions (dependent words) that introduce the dependent clauses.
- I refused to go because I had homework to do.
- I could make good grades if I studied.
- After I finish college, I’ll get a job.
- They were playing Frisbee while he was studying.
- Her essay would have been better if she had rewritten it.
- Unless you return your library book today, you’ll have to pay a fine of ten cents per day.
- A large vocabulary is the characteristic that most often accompanies outstanding success.
- He was searching for the money that he had dropped in the snow on Christmas Day.
- Although he looked a long time, he couldn’t find it.
- Until you understand subjects and verbs, you cannot understand clauses and their purposes in sentences.
- You can’t do your best when you are tired.
- I’d have been waiting still if you hadn’t called.
- The crowd cheered when one of the Navy players came onto the field.
- They roared with excitement as he raced down to the goal line.
- I have always hoped that I could someday go to the Super Bowl.
- He took his car although he really preferred his motorcycle.
- If it’s nice tomorrow, we’ll hike up Old Baldy.
- While the leaves are still on the trees, let’s take some pictures.
- I thought that you were coming with me.
While she is away, someone will take her pl